William Mustard at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Mustard, with support from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, developed an alternative and simplified technique to the Senning procedure which was used to correct a congenital heart defect that produced “blue babies”.The defect is called transposition of the great vessels, or transposition of the great arteries (TGV or TGA).This surgery had not been possible prior to 1975 because of difficulty with re-implanting coronary arteries which perfuse the actual heart muscle itself (myocardium), and even after it was first performed the excellent results from the Mustard operation meant that it was a long time before the Jatene procedure took over.
In other cases, the device is implanted as "primary prevention." Over the years it has become very evident that patients with very weak heart muscles are at much higher risk of suffering a sudden onset of a rapid heart rhythm that can be potentially fatal.Unfortunately, it was also discovered that patient's first abnormal rhythm was their last.The most common is because the person has already HAD a rapid heart rhythm that can be potentially life-threatening and it requires treatment.What is clear is that there are no drugs as effective at preventing sudden cardiac arrest that are as effective as ICD's in this situation.Until the late 1950s, and Senning's operation the condition was commonly fatal.
The defect causes blood from the lungs to flow back to the lungs and blood from the body to flow back to the body.As such, there has been a push in the medical community to implant these devices early in the course of a person's heart disease history to prevent sudden cardiac arrest.With this more aggressive approach in patients with weak heart muscles, there has been about a 23% reduction in cardiac deaths over patients that have been treated without such devices and only medications. These abnormal rapid rhythms can occur when skipped beats occur in succession in diseased heart cells and then circulate around an area of scar or abnormal heart muscle. A defibrillator is a mechanical device that can shock the heart to restore a rapid heart rhythm to a normal heart rhythm.Automatic External Defibrillators (or AEDs) are devices that are applied to the exterior of the chest, usually during sudden cardiac arrest, that automatically detect and, if needed, shock the person's abnormal heart rhythm back to normal. Rather, the remainder of this tutorial discusses issues related to Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators (or ICDs).ICDs are surgically-implanted devices that always contain a pacemaker (to support slow heart rhythms) but also contain a computer that automatically detects rapid heart rates (usually above levels the heart should achieve normally) and can either pace or shock the heart back to normal rhythm.